For the past week or so, I’ve woken up at 7 a.m. to the opening chords of Hamilton (no surprise there, if you’ve read some of my other blog posts recently). My new morning routine goes something like this: dance along to Hamilton before turning off the alarm and turning on my laptop to write. […]
An analogy to the Gold Rush may be useful here: The claim stakers are the federal government and philanthropies that have staked out the Common Core for public policy. To work that stake, they incentivize states and school districts to mine the…
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I will post a variety of different research-related links here. This blog will be a space to share reflections on readings, theories, controversial issues, and links on education.
by Bryan Mann and Julia Mahfouz
A revolution in Education has thoroughly transformed human society over just a century and a half. Along with a few other major global phenomena, such as large-scale capitalism and representation democracy, schooling whole populations for ever more years changes both individuals and the institutions at the core of society. Intensifying right up to today, what is called the “education revolution” is a cultural phenomenon more than a material or political one, although it has major material and political consequences. ~ David P. Baker, The Schooled Society (2014)
The driving question of the research this team conducts is: “What is education’s impact on______.” The blank can be filled with a number of cultural and political topics of interest across a variety of subjects. While our research gets published and presented in a variety of academic venues, the purpose of this blog is to give the readers a snapshot of our current work in a less formal outlet. This first entry describes the progress of one of our papers, which asks the question: What impact does schooling have on women’s contraceptive use? With this, we seek to examine education’s impact on a health outcome by considering if higher levels of education lead to empowerment, in turn leading to a specific health decision.
The study looks at education’s effect on women’s empowerment and contraceptive use in Latin American/ Caribbean countries—Haiti, Nicaragua, and Bolivia using a pooled sample of data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The justification and assumptions that drive this study come from the understanding that a majority of females who engaged in premarital sex in this region did not use contraceptives partially due to lack of education, and, as a result, the region saw a high number of unintended pregnancies (see also Ali & Cleland 2005).
The South American/Latin American/Caribbean region has experienced educational development but with uneven access across locations inside countries. This context has uneven access to education and variability of educational attainment, allowing the team to investigate if years of schooling attended by women led to higher levels of empowerment, improved health knowledge, and greater wealth. We used Structural Equation Modeling to determine if these pathways (education leading to empowerment/knowledge/wealth then leading to contraceptive use) increased use of contraception. See the pictorial description of this study:
The results suggest that in this context formal education is a significant social determinant of contraceptive use, focusing on the change of women’s status and its mediating impact on family planning. In other words, our findings suggest that in this region education leads to empowerment, knowledge, and wealth and this in turn leads to the outcome of more women using contraception and having unwanted pregnancies.
The researchers working on this project are Dr. Haram Jeon, Dr. David Baker, Bryan Mann (PhD candidate in Educational Theory and Policy), and Julia Mahfouz (PhD candidate in Educational Leadership). The team presented this work at the 2015 Population Association of America Annual Meeting in San Diego and won a ribbon for best poster in their session.
Ali, M. M., & Cleland, J. (2005). Sexual and reproductive behaviour among single women aged 15–24 in eight Latin American countries: A comparative analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 60(6), 1175-1185.
HaramJeon and Bryan Mann presented their paper (with Julia Mahfouz and David P. Baker) titled “Women’s Empowerment, Educational Attainment, and Contraceptive Use in Latin American/Caribbean Countries” at the 2015 Population Association of America (PAA) research conference in San Diego, California. The team demonstrated that educational attainment has an independent effect on contraceptive use across several countries. The poster won an award ribbon for best poster in their session!
Lebanese Children at School in 1930
According to Mintz, childhood is far from being stable, timeless, and universal category of life; it is more of a historical invention whose meaning and social force have changed over time. This is also the case when we are to compare American childhood to other cultures. The reality of childhood varies from one culture to another. Similar to the African and Korean childhoods, the Lebanese childhood has undergone several conceptual changes over time. The idea of childhood was molded and remolded in French Mandate Lebanon (1920- 1942) upon which the Euro-American modernity was projected.
The Ottoman era focused on religion to be the basis of the way they reared children. Although Christian, Muslim, Druze, and Jewish adults resided in the Ottoman territories which were to become modern Lebanon, they all shared the same idea of childhood. A child was expected to live by the morals depicted by the Ottoman law; boys were expected to work as porters or farmers and help their parents with financial support. Education was basically studying religion. When the British and French troops entered Beirut in 1918, the first step towards social reform was through education. Education provided foreigners with inroads into home and family life, and the school building was identified as one of the most utilitarian sites for social reform.
Similar to how “‘Friends of Indians’ launched an ambitious campaign to ‘Americanize’ Indian children and obliterate their tribal identity,” the French issued an act proclaiming the maintenance and rehabilitation of the educational system and the replacement of Turkish with French as the official language of instruction, along with Arabic (p.171). Missionary schools started opening all around Lebanon with high enrollment; the High Commission reported a total of 1,307 schools by 1933. This revealed a strong and serious determination on behalf of the Lebanese to develop and educate themselves and their children. The educational reform became a site of contestation between French Jesuits and American protestants, both of whom “sought to recast Lebanese youth in their own image” (p. 328). Lebanese critic of the 1960s and 70s, Hassan Hamdan explains that rather than promote a Lebanese national culture, the “colonists instead sought to craft children, especially the children of the bourgeoisie, into second-class citizens of their own empires, with social, cultural, and economical allegiances to the West that trumped their native ones” (p. 329).
By the 17th Century, the Jesuits had become an accepted educational presence in the region. By early 1830s, the crusade to spread the “Good News” of the Second Great Awakening had been taken up by American missionaries dispatched to the East, hoping to convert Muslims, Maronites, Roman Catholics, Orthodox Catholics to Protestantism. Ideologies of the West were engrained in the children who carried along that legacy when Lebanon became independent–a democratic country operating on its own.
After independence, Lebanese childhood was remolded to merge the European-American ideals with non-Western national culture. It might be said that the Lebanese nationalist child-ideal combined “European and existing gender, religious, and aesthetic norms” in order to represent Lebanon as both modern but also possessing its own distinctive history and culture (p. 86). In that sense, Lebanon, unlike Syria or other countries of the Middle East that were also colonized–carried that Western culture through education of childhood that was eventually manifested in all aspects of society along with their national patriotism. Thus, until now, Lebanese’s culture can easily be detected to be similar in many ways to that of Europe: Their everyday dialect is a combination of Arabic, French, and English words all together; their perspectives advocate Western ideologies, their societal interactions merge traditional Lebanese customs with that of the West in all aspects of life. And all of that was produced by the change in the history of Lebanese childhood through education that was socially and politically molded to in itself transform a nation!
‘Amil, “Nizam al-ta’lim fi Lubnan,” 28; abu Rabi’, Contemporary Arab Thought, 329.
LeVine, “Ethnographic Studies of Childhood,” 86.
Asher Kaufman, Reviving Phoenicia: In Search of Identity in Lebanon (London: I.B. Tauris, 2004), 328.
Steven, Mintz, Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood (Cambridge: Belknap Harvard,2004), 171.
Play as Emotional Symbolizing
Engel, “Peeking Through the Mirror” (2003, 153-166)
Engel extends Vygotsky’s view of children’s symbolic play to focus on narratives that act as boundaries between secret and known. Vygotsky states that make-believe play is socially and culturally determined. Playing the roles of real life characters (for example, a mother or a doctor) children achieve a mental representation of social roles and the rules of society. In addition, Vygotsky believes that play provides a context where children learn first order symbolism through symbolic play. Children learn to move quickly representing objects for other objects and then representing objects with no objects at all. The symbols, while initially dependent on action and physical similarity for their development and expression, become less dependent as children internalize the symbols into mental images. Engel tackles fantasy storytelling as another form of children’s make-believe play to show how children use their inner thoughts as narratives, unleashing their emotional and intellectual problems by translating their inner concerns, fears, and confusions into fantasy “symbolized” play.
Children during play may start narrating their silent inner stories out loud when they are alone. These narratives tell us how children use fantasy storytelling as a psychological medium that merges (Engel, 2003), “What is wild and private” with “What is orderly and public” (p. 154). Thus, the narrative becomes symbolic as children manipulate it to communicate their inner private selves through factual rule-governed stories. By doing so, children form a connection between the self and society.
On the rational side, the narratives help children understand their society. Psychological research shows how children acquire the mechanics of storytelling to express their cognitive understanding of the values of culture, and shaping their representations of experience. They become able to use storytelling as a means to interact with the people around them. In addition, these fantasy narratives help children develop their language skills. In that sense, fantasy storytelling during play help children think logically, construct organized sequential streams of thought that communicate their reality and their relationship with the world around them–which comprises of another reality.
On the wild side, the narratives allow children to explore their inner “secret spaces of childhood–the child’s inner thoughts and fantasies” (Engel, 2003, p. 155). Whether written or narrated out loud, these stories seem to be conventional and follow the rules and organization of a narrative. However, if we analyze them psychologically, we find out that children communicate their inner emotions, thoughts, needs, and concerns that they cannot express forthrightly. Instead, they use language as a form of play to structure and create images in words to “fulfill their impulse to construct and transform reality” (p. 157). This id-governed primary process thinking draws on modes of symbolization to cover up the child’s thoughts and feelings that cannot be expressed bluntly due to societal constraints. Hence, children utilize the medium of language as means to express themselves, make meaning of the world around them without being judged. In that sense, play can be considered as a ‘safe place’ within which inner tensions can be explored in the outer world through make-believe symbolic play and storytelling.
Image from http://clifonline.wordpress.com/
Engel states that these stories “serve as the curtain between private and public realms, what is allowed and what is not allowed, what is real and what is imagined, what belongs in a story and what does not” (Engel, 2003, p. 158). This symbolic process of storytelling helps children construct different spheres of reality and provide them with a way to explore the relationship among these spheres. They make sense of the world through storytelling.
The spoken conscious narrative, just like play, helps children develop their emotional, cognitive, and social selves. It acts as a shield that enables children to let out their unconscious feelings and thoughts that cannot be openly conveyed through embedded symbols merged with the ordinary story line accepted by society. In addition, these narratives act as “a cooling vessel” that gives the children a chance to understand themselves, by distancing themselves from the loaded feelings embedded in such narratives.
According to the psychoanalyst Adam Phillips, these fantasy stories “provide children with a perfect vehicle for exploring sex, satisfying their curiosity, and seeking pleasure” (as cited in Engel, 2003, p. 163). The story form allows children to think, peek, investigate, imagine and explore their desires. It also connects the mind with the body as children construct their mental thoughts into concrete words, merging along the physical and sensuous with the affective and mental.
Image from http://helenstubbs.wordpress.com/
Children could explore through fantasy storytelling themselves on different levels. In addition to communication and expression of their inner needs, feelings, and thoughts, children form their own identity through narratives. They are in control of what they want to reveal and what they want to hide. They undergo the process of negotiation between their inner and outer life.
Storytelling plays an important role in the children’s development and can be considered as another form of play that children indulge in to create an understanding of themselves and their society.
Seminar III: Make-Believe Play http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_2csrGrUoA